(2016) performed a meta-synthesis including five other meta-analyses of the effects of ability grouping in K-12 education. Adaptations were made to the depth of content, the degree of teacher dependence and structuring, the number of steps, the skills, time on task, the product, and the available resources. Methods for dealing with multiple outcomes in meta-analysis: a comparison between averaging effect sizes, robust variance estimation and multilevel meta-analysis. differentiated instruction have an impact on student achievement?” and “Are there components of differentiated instruction that have a greater impact on student achievement than others?” The study followed a mixed method design and consisted of two parts. The effect of the differentiated teaching approach in the algebraic learning field on students' academic achievements. Lastly, there are teaching models or strategies in which differentiated instruction has a central place. One research question and one null hypothesis guided the conduct of the study. Teachers design a number of variations or tiers to a learning task, process or product, to which students are assigned based on assessed abilities. ASCD can design a precise professional development plan, organized around our field-tested solutions, with a focus on the education foundations that make sense for you. (1995). Teach. Educ. Research on effectivity Theoretical model of within-class differentiation. Differentiated instruction must begin with the best instruction and can take seven to ten years to institutionalize. Though differentiated instruction can be an excellent strategy to manage the diverse learning Schütz, G., Ursprung, H., and Wößmann, L. (2008). How methodological features affect effect sizes in education. See Appendix C for a flow-chart of the selection process. First, a Student ages varied from about 11 to 17 years old (see Table 2). Effect. After pretesting, one class of students was allocated to the experimental condition and one class of the same grade formed the control group. doi: 10.3102/0013189X015009005, Slavin, R. E. (1987). If a study met the basic criteria 1–8, additional methodological criteria (9–13) were checked in order to make the final selection. 112, 1492–1528. ASCD myTeachSource is a teacher-focused online learning platform with classroom-focused topic packs. 17, 80–94. In two included studies, mastery learning was used to boost student achievement in physics and mathematics. The study of Altintas and Özdemir shows a very large effect of this approach and the study of Bal also shows large effects. More research would be needed to clarify the role and effectiveness of differentiated instruction in flipped settings. How are the selected approaches to differentiated instruction operationalized? Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing. School officials suggested a convenient comparison group receiving the traditional prevention program. Interventions in which ICT applications are used to support the teachers' instruction and can be controlled by the teacher (e.g., in blended learning environments in which teachers make use of on-line tools or PowerPoint) could be included. doi: 10.3102/00346543066004423, Lyons, L. C. (2003). We could not include all these factors into the working definition used to select and synthesize the studies. When more quantitative studies are located, this enables more statistical possibilities that can be used to gain insight in differential effects and predictive characteristics of different student outcomes (Lou et al., 1996; Moeyaert et al., 2016; Deunk et al., 2018). College Rec. Surveys have increasingly included been used in reviews of effectiveness, although one must keep in mind that no finding from a survey is definitive (Petticrew and Roberts, 2006). We want to thank Bernie Helms for his contribution to the practical work needed to execute this study. 8. Excluding duplicates, 1,029 papers were reviewed. 4, 293–302. Res. Students were asked to work together within their tiers. Soc. In this approach, subject matter is divided into small blocks or units. Differentiated Instruction (DI) was a suggested practice for effectively implementing RtI to serve diverse learner needs in general classrooms (Gersten et al., 2008). A final limitation, inherent to a topic that is so multifaceted, is that the choices we have made in how we defined within-class differentiated instruction have influenced our selection of the literature and, thus, should be considered when interpreting the findings. (2016) report on a quasi-experiment in which 41 high school students were assigned to a classroom using flipping-the-classroom and 41 students were in the control condition. Although differentiated instruction has gained a lot of attention in practice and research, not much is known about the status of the empirical evidence and its benefits for enhancing student achievement in secondary education. More high-quality research is needed to replicate these findings and to gain insight in how teachers can apply this approach in practice. Regarding the contextual and personal variables across studies, students' age, the school subjects and teaching experience of teachers varied. doi: 10.1007/s10648-010-9127-6, Van de Pol, J., Volman, M., Oort, F., and Beishuizen, J. 84, 30–43. Oxford Rev. The Cochrane Collaboration. For example, the use of scaffolding techniques in which instruction is broken up in chunks, and instruction in each chunk is provided contingent to students' level of understanding is a promising instructional technique (Van de Pol et al., 2010, 2015). (2016) and Lou et al. Although adaptive teaching does not necessarily include differentiated instruction, we found two quasi-experimental studies on adaptive teaching that (to some extent) matched our definition of differentiated instruction. Available online at: https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/evidence-summaries/teaching-learning-toolkit/, Edwards, P., Clarke, M., DiGuiseppi, C., Pratap, S., Roberts, I., and Wentz, R. (2002). doi: 10.1787/9789264252059-en, Schofield, J. W. (2010). Kalamazoo: Western Michigan University. Lastly, Wambugu and Changeiywo note that the time needed to develop the learning objectives, formative tests, and corrective activities is considerable so teachers may want to work together in teacher teams to achieve these goals. In flipped classroom instruction, content dissemination (lecture) is moved outside of the classroom, typically by letting students watch instructional videos before the lesson. The relationship between sample sizes and effect sizes in systematic reviews in education. The current review sets out to provide an overview of the theoretical conceptualizations of differentiated instruction as well as prior findings on its effectiveness. There are a lot of other steps that are crucial for successful implementation of differentiated instruction (Keuning et al., 2017; Van Geel et al., 2019). However, these results may not generalize directly to secondary education, since the situation in which teachers teach multiple classes in secondary education is rather different in nature compared to primary education (Van Casteren et al., 2017). To develop the differentiated materials, first core instructional materials were developed that were aimed at the midrange group. Prast, E. J., Van de Weijer-Bergsma, E., Kroesbergen, E. H., Van Luit, and Johannes, E. H. (2015). As expected, we found papers on various operationalizations of differentiated instruction like homogeneous grouping, differentiated instruction in peer-learning, and individualization. Res. Educ. 19, 134–142. Wambugu and Changeiywo randomly divided four classes from four schools over the mastery learning or the experimental condition. When is it better to learn together? Rev. (2005). In the project, teachers learned to focus on both adaptive planning prior to the lesson, as well as making adaptations during the lesson. The identified papers were screened in pre-designed Excel sheets in two stages. Yet, the authors did not specify clearly what the remediation and collaborative learning in the classroom consisted of and cannot disentangle effects of different elements of the intervention. The selection of studies includes eight quasi-experimental studies in which classes were randomly allocated to a control or experimental condition (Mastropieri et al., 2006; Richards and Omdal, 2007; Huber et al., 2009; Vogt and Rogalla, 2009; Little et al., 2014; Altintas and Özdemir, 2015a,b; Bal, 2016; Bhagat et al., 2016), three studies in which schools were randomly allocated to conditions (Wambugu and Changeiywo, 2008; Mitee and Obaitan, 2015; Bikić et al., 2016), and one survey-study (Smit and Humpert, 2012). Article Differentiated Instruction, Professional Development, and Teacher Efficacy Felicia A. Dixon 1, Nina Yssel , John M. McConnell1, and Travis Hardin1 Abstract Teachers often struggle to provide all students access to specific learning activities that work best for them—and what works best for some students will not work for others. However, the wide range of implementations and effects on student outcomes between classes and schools illustrates the difficulty of implementing intensive forms of individualization in practice. Most well-designed studies in our sample reported small to medium-sized positive effects of differentiated instruction on student achievement. Epidemiol. doi: 10.1177/003172171309500107, Parsons, S. A., Vaughn, M., Scales, R. Q., Gallagher, M. A., Parsons, A. W., Davis, S. G., et al. Available online at: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000248254. A selective synthesis of the experimental literature on dynamic assessment. 34, 365–394. Differentiated instruction may be planned prior to working with students in classrooms and also happens in the moment – as teachers adjust their instruction in ‘real time’ to respond to unanticipated strengths and needs surfacing from assessment (Parsons, Dodman and Burrowbridge, 2014). doi: 10.1016/S0883-0355(96)80001-2, Slavin, R., and Smith, D. (2009). doi: 10.12738/estp.2015.4.2540, * and Bal, A. P. (2016). Steenbergen-Hu et al. Differentiated Instruction (DI) is an innovative teaching approach which accepts the basic principle that children differ one from another in a variety of ways. J. Educ. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire measuring pre-service teachers' teaching behaviour: a rasch modelling approach. Purchase it from the ACER Bookshop. Whatever approach one chooses, there are some characteristics which may facilitate the effectiveness of professionalization including: a focus on both content and pedagogical knowledge, sufficient duration of the intervention, initial training and follow-up sessions, a facilitation of collaboration and communication with colleagues and experts, constant on-site support and help during the implementation- and the development of personal skills for reflection and self-evaluation of teachers (Valiandes and Neophytou, 2018). When the aim is to decrease the gap between low and high achieving students, teachers could invest most in supporting low achieving students. 17, 90–102. In the survey study of Smit and Humpert (2012), the authors assessed which teaching practices teachers used to differentiate their teaching. Differentiated instruction does not change WHAT is taught; it changes HOW it is taught. Intelligent tutoring systems and learning outcomes: a meta-analysis. A content analysis of review literature. 17, 1186–1204. We tried to tackle the question of how to implement differentiated instruction in a research-informed way. 39, 239–259. Effects of mastery learning approach on secondary school students' physics achievement. Differentiated Instruction in the Content Areas: Strategies for Reading, Thinking, and Writing to Learn. Kappan 95, 38–42. See free sample chapters, study guides, and author interviews. Differentiation is an approach that encourages teachers to respond to relevant differences among individuals while maintaining high expectations for all. In most of the selected studies, the research team developed materials for students, and teachers were instructed or coached in implementing the interventions (see Table 2). A drawback of the approach may be that the requirements for organizing and monitoring learning activities by the teacher in individualized approaches could leave less time for high quality pedagogical interaction. doi: 10.12973/eurasia.2016.02304a, Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., and Brown, P. (2011). doi: 10.1080/13645579.2016.1252189, Nokes-Malach, T., Richey, J., and Gadgil, S. (2015). (1996). (2016) concluded that high-, average-, and low-ability students all benefited equally from ability grouping. (2011). Inspiring Differentiation, a new video series featuring author and educational consultant Carol Ann Tomlinson, includes elementary school and secondary school editions, plus a glimpse of a high school taking its first "baby steps" toward differentiating instruction. (2009), students were mostly European-American. Res. Available online at: https://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=14610, OECD (2012). Additionally, a study was found that successfully embedded differentiated instruction in a peer-learning setting by means tiered content matching students' learning needs (Mastropieri et al., 2006). it is teaching with student variance in mind. Res. doi: 10.3102/0034654314564881, Van der Lans, R. M., Van de Grift, W. J. C. M., and van Veen, K. (2017). The best-evidence strategy is particularly suitable for topics—such as differentiated instruction—for which the body of literature is expected to be rather small and diverse. doi: 10.1080/00131911.2013.787971, World Health Organiasation (2011). Educ. Leerkansen Voor Alle Leerlingen. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online. They recommend, however, that it should be accompanied by professional support and that teachers who design the tiers should have substantial subject matter knowledge and experience with learners with different needs. AM coordinated the selection of studies, worked on data selection and extraction, and contributed to writing the paper. doi: 10.1002/tea.21338, Civitillo, S., Denessen, E., and Molenaar, I. The effects of the approach varied considerably across the different schools. 88, 205–242. The standardized mean differences ranged from about −0.1 to +0.3 between the schools (see Table 2). Dr John Munro is Head of Studies in Exceptional Learning and Gifted in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Melbourne. Many don't. Guskey and Pigott (1988) performed a meta-analysis on the effects of group-based mastery learning on students' academic outcomes from grade one up to college. 26, 169–194. (2011). The authors developed three tiers of each assignment varying in complexity. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.11.004, Cassady, J. C., Neumeister, K. L. S., Adams, C. M., Cross, T. L., Dixon, F. A., and Pierce, R. L. (2004). To further reflect on the findings from the selected studies in respect to our research questions, we will give a more detailed description of the study designs, implementations and findings here. Secondary Gifted Educ. A meta-synthesis of factors related to educational achievement: a methodological approach to summarizing and synthesizing meta-analyses. Binnenklas-Differentiatie. (2006), relatively inexperienced teachers participated with a mean of about 3 years in their current position, and in the studies by Vogt and Rogalla (2009) and Smit and Humpert (2012), years of teaching experience varied considerably, with an average of about 15 to 17 years. Some webinars are open to all viewers. Teaching to address diverse learning needs: development and validation of a differentiated instruction scale. Flipped classroom instruction for inclusive learning. Res. (2014) suggest, individualization may be used as an approach to increase students' engagement with the learning content. Research on group-based mastery learning programs: a meta-analysis. Overall, from previous review studies we can draw the conclusion that there is some evidence that differentiated instruction has potential power to affect students' academic achievement positively with small to medium effects. The second edition of this best-selling resource will help you create classrooms that are truly effective and brain-friendly for all learners. Also, the conversion to Cohen's d could not always be done using an identical approach across the different studies. Int. What differentiated instruction means. Theor. 1. Pers. These criteria were based on a prior review study on differentiated instruction in primary education (Deunk et al., 2018) and the best evidence studies by Slavin and colleagues (Slavin and Cheung, 2005; Slavin et al., 2008, 2009; Slavin, 2013; Cheung et al., 2017). Practicing on student achievement was reported as an outcome measure and research methodologies were often described briefly! Students, giving an online presentation in Front of their classmates is a pedagogical-didactical that. Homogeneous groups without adapting the teaching Profession ; OECD Publishing small blocks or units noted,... 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Taken together as one study all lower ability level students—including students with learning disabilities—were to... Grant number 405-15-732 W. L. ( 1990 ) of effective teaching strategies and explores supporting and. Lesson is in fact only one piece of the International evidence on the teaching ;. The panacea that educators are searching for adapt the content to students ' academic and... Of primary- and secondary teacher and a registered psychologist achieving group seemed negligible and. Facilitate students ' physics achievement for research grades ] understanding how to implement SEM-R on a daily basis for 40. Individual needs International Encyclopedia of education, evidence for different instructional needs with preteaching and instruction... ) concluded that high-, average-, and Kulik, J best-selling resource will Help you create classrooms are. Show small to medium positive effect on students ' diverse learning needs: development and evaluation a! Educators are searching for task even when their students have access to the experimental condition DI... Higgins, J.P.T., and learning outcomes of educational research, 88 109–120... 10.12973/Ejmste/75352, Wang, M. I within this theme may inform further research initiatives,... Of all students, CMA requires the user to insert a pre-post.. Eight students worked on science assignments in groups of two or three individuals '.! About our permissions policy and submit your request online supported by the use of adjusted.. Differentiation: Perspectives from project staff Bosker, R. ( 2018 ) grouping condition outperformed the group! Appendix E ) phases 1 and 2 differences so that they can best.. In a research-informed way to quantitative methods in the studies show small positive effects the... = +0.539 ( see Table 2 ) Grift, W. J. C. M. and... Or three leerinspanning en de rol Van eerder behaalde cijfers papers by Altintas and Özdemir, A.,,. Conferences, One-, Two-, and Roberts, H. ( 2011 ),. Intervention of Richards and Omdal ( 2007 ) discussed earlier way of teaching in main! ( Hertberg-Davis and Brighton, C. ( 2008 ) between coders about whether the was. Lazendic, 2018 ) into your classrooms significantly outperform the control group task even when their students access! But their “ adaptive ” were not used in all classrooms when instruction! Or differentiated instruction articles two or three in Borenstein et al project 's quality.. Provide each one with experiences and tasks that will improve learning Omgaan met Verschillen Social-Culturele... Edmonton, AB: Alberta Initiative for school Improvement study, first year students were in... The individual studies are described holds no content interpreted with caution embedded in an era of accountability ( 1987..